Molecule Info

 See TERMINOLOGY & ABBREVIATIONS
Content(s) & Description

Adapalene 1mg/gm, Benzoyl peroxide 25mg/gm Gel.

Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel is a combination product for topical use containing adapalene (a synthetic retinoid) and benzoyl peroxide.

Adapalene is a naphthoic acid derivative with retinoid-like properties. The chemical name for adapalene is (6-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-methoxyphenyl]-2-naphthoic acid). It has the following structural formula:

Adapalene:
epiduo-figure-01.jpg
Molecular formula:  C28H28O3       Molecular weight: 412.5


Benzoyl Peroxide is a highly lipophilic oxidizing agent that localizes in both bacterial and keratinocyte cell membranes.  The chemical name for benzoyl peroxide is dibenzoyl peroxide.  It has the following structural formula:

Benzoyl Peroxide:
epiduo-figure-02.jpg
Molecular formula: C14H10O      Molecular weight: 242.23
Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel contains the following inactive ingredients:  acrylamide/sodium acryloyldimethyltaurate copolymer, docusate sodium, edetate disodium, glycerin, isohexadecane, poloxamer 124, polysorbate 80, propylene glycol, purified water, and sorbitan oleate.

Indication(s) Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel is indicated for the topical treatment of acne vulgaris in patients 12 years of age and older.
Dosage & Administration Apply a thin film of Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel to affected areas of the face and/or trunk once daily after washing.  Use a pea-sized amount for each area of the face (e.g., forehead, chin, each cheek). Avoid the eyes, lips and mucous membranes.
Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel is not for oral, ophthalmic, or intravaginal use. 
Each gram of Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel contains 1 mg (0.1%) adapalene and 25 mg (2.5%) benzoyl peroxide in an aqueous based gel.
Contraindications None
Warnings Ultraviolet Light and Environmental Exposure
Exposure to sunlight, including sunlamps, should be minimized during the use of Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel.  Patients with high levels of sun exposure and those with inherent sensitivity to sun should exercise particular caution.  Use of sunscreen products and protective apparel, (e.g., hat) are recommended when exposure cannot be avoided.  Weather extremes, such as wind or cold, may be irritating to patients under treatment with Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel.

Local Cutaneous Reactions
Erythema, scaling, dryness, and stinging/burning may be experienced with use of Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide GEL.  These are most likely to occur during the first four weeks of treatment, are mostly mild to moderate in intensity, and usually lessen with continued use of the medication.  Depending upon the severity of these side effects, patients should be instructed to use a moisturizer, reduce the frequency of the application of Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide GEL, or discontinue use.

The product should not be applied to cuts, abrasions, eczematous or sunburned skin.  As with other retinoids, use of “waxing” as a depilatory method should be avoided on skin treated with Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel.

Avoid concomitant use of other potentially irritating topical products (medicated or abrasive soaps and cleansers, soaps and cosmetics that have strong skin-drying effect and products with high concentrations of alcohol, astringents, spices, or limes).
Special Precautions

USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

Pregnancy
Pregnancy category C. There are no well-controlled trials in pregnant women treated with Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with the combination gel or benzoyl peroxide. Furthermore, such studies are not always predictive of human response; therefore, Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the risk to the fetus.

No teratogenic effects were observed in rats treated with oral doses of 0.15 to 5.0 mg adapalene/kg/day, up to 25 times (mg/m2/day) the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 2 grams of Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel. However, teratogenic changes were observed in rats and rabbits when treated with oral doses of ≥ 25 mg adapalene/kg/day representing 123 and 246 times MRHD, respectively. Findings included cleft palate, microphthalmia, encephalocele and skeletal abnormalities in rats; and umbilical hernia, exophthalmos and kidney and skeletal abnormalities in rabbits.

Dermal teratology studies conducted in rats and rabbits at doses of 0.6-6.0 mg adapalene/kg/day [25-59 times (mg/m2) the MRHD] exhibited no fetotoxicity and only minimal increases in supernumerary ribs in both species and delayed ossification in rabbits.

Nursing Mothers
It is not known whether adapalene or benzoyl peroxide is excreted in human milk following use of Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel.  Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use
Safety and effectiveness of Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel in pediatric patients under the age of 12 have not been established.

Geriatric Use
Clinical studies of Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. 

NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
No carcinogenicity, photocarcinogenicity, genotoxicity, or fertility studies were conducted with Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel.

Carcinogenicity studies with adapalene have been conducted in mice at topical doses of 0.4, 1.3, and 4.0 mg/kg/day (1.2, 3.9, and 12 mg/m2/day), and in rats at oral doses of 0.15, 0.5, and 1.5 mg/kg/day (0.9, 3.0, and 9.0 mg/m2/day). In terms of body surface area, the highest dose levels are 9.8 (mice) and 7.4 times (rats) the MRHD of 2 grams of Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel. In the rat study, an increased incidence of benign and malignant pheochromcytomas in the adrenal medulla of male rats was observed.

No significant increase in tumor formation was observed in rodents topically treated with 15-25% benzoyl peroxide carbopol gel (6-10 times the concentration of benzoyl peroxide in Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel) for two years. Rats received maximum daily applications of 138 (males) and 205 (females) mg benzoyl peroxide/kg. In terms of body surface area, these levels are 27-40 times the MRHD. Similar results were obtained in mice topically treated with 25% benzoyl peroxide carbopol gel for 56 weeks followed by intermittent treatment with 15% benzoyl peroxide carbopol gel for rest of the 2 years study period, and in mice topically treated with 5% benzoyl peroxide carbopol gel for two years.

The role of benzoyl peroxide as a tumor promoter has been well established in several animal species. However, the significance of this finding in humans is unknown.

In a photocarcinogenicity study conducted with 5% benzoyl peroxide carbopol gel, no increase in UV-induced tumor formation was observed in hairless mice topically treated for 40 weeks.

No photocarcinogenicity studies were conducted with adapalene. However, animal studies have shown an increased tumorigenic risk with the use of pharmacologically similar drugs (e.g., retinoids) when exposed to UV irradiation in the laboratory or sunlight. Although the significance of these findings to humans is not clear, patients should be advised to avoid or minimize exposure to either sunlight or artificial irradiation sources.

Adapalene did not exhibit mutagenic or genotoxic effects in vitro (Ames test, Chinese hamster ovary cell assay, mouse lymphoma TK assay) or in vivo(mouse micronucleus test).

Bacterial mutagenicity assays (Ames test) with benzoyl peroxide has provided mixed results, mutagenic potential was observed in a few but not in a majority of investigations. Benzoyl peroxide has been shown to produce single-strand DNA breaks in human bronchial epithelial and mouse epidermal cells, it has caused DNA-protein cross-links in the human cells, and has also induced a dose-dependent increase in sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

In rat oral studies, 20 mg adapalene/kg/day (120 mg/m2/day; 98 times the MRHD based on mg/m2/day comparison) did not affect the reproductive performance and fertility of F0 males and females, or growth, development and reproductive function of F1 offspring.

No fertility studies were conducted with benzoyl peroxide.

Adverse Drug Reactions Clinical Studies Experience
Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

During clinical trials, 1401 subjects were exposed to Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel. A total of 1036 subjects with acne vulgaris, 12 years and older, were treated once daily for 12 weeks to 12 months. Related adverse events reported within 12 weeks of treatment and in at least 1% of subjects treated with Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel and those reported in subjects treated with the vehicle gel are presented in Table 1:
Table 1: Drug Related Adverse Events Reported in Clinical Trials by At Least 1% of Patients Treated For 12 Weeks
System Organ Class/Preferred Term Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel Vehicle Gel
N = 564 N = 489
Subjects with AE(s) 14% 4%
     Dry skin 7% 2%
     Contact dermatitis 3% <1%
     Application site burning 2% <1%
     Application site irritation 1% <1%
     Skin irritation 1% 0%


Local tolerability evaluations, presented in Table 2, were conducted at each study visit in clinical trials by assessment of erythema, scaling, dryness, burning, and stinging.

Table 2: Incidence of Local Cutaneous Irritation in Controlled Clinical Studies (N = 553) Treatment Emergent Signs and Symptoms
  Maximum Severity End of Treatment Severity
  During Treatment  (12 Weeks)
  Mild Moderate Severe Mild Moderate Severe
Erythema 27% 13% 1% 8% 2% 1%
Scaling 35% 11% 1% 9% 1% <1%
Dryness 41% 13% 1% 10% 2% <1%
Stinging/burning 41% 15% 3% 7% 2% 1%

Analysis over the 12-week period showed that local tolerability scores for erythema, scaling, dryness, and stinging/burning peaked at Week 1 of therapy and decreased thereafter.
Drug Interactions Concomitant topical acne therapy should be used with caution because a possible cumulative irritancy effect may occur, especially with the use of peeling, desquamating, or abrasive agents.

No formal drug-drug interaction studies were conducted with Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide GEL.
Pharmacology

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism of Action
Adapalene 
Adapalene binds to specific retinoic acid nuclear receptors but does not bind to cytosolic receptor protein.  Biochemical and pharmacological profile studies have demonstrated that adapalene is a modulator of cellular differentiation, keratinization and inflammatory processes.  However, the significance of these findings with regard to the mechanism of action of adapalene for the treatment of acne is unknown.

Benzoyl peroxide
Benzoyl peroxide is an oxidizing agent with bacteriocidal and keratolytic effects

Pharmacodynamics
Pharmacodynamics of Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel is unknown.

Pharmacokinetics
A pharmacokinetic study was conducted in 24 subjects with acne vulgaris who were treated once daily for 30 days with 2 grams/day of Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide GEL applied to 1000 cm2 of acne involved skin, (face, chest, and upper back). Two subjects (20%) had quantifiable adapalene plasma concentrations above the limit of quantification (LOQ = 0.1ng/mL). The highest adapalene Cmax and AUC0-24h was 0.21 ng/mL and 1.99 ng.h/mL, respectively. Excretion of adapalene appears to be primarily by the biliary route.

Benzoyl peroxide is absorbed by the skin where it is converted to benzoic acid and eliminated in the urine. CLINICAL STUDIES

The safety and efficacy of Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel applied once daily for the treatment of acne vulgaris were assessed in two 12-week, multicenter, controlled clinical studies of similar design, comparing Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel to the gel vehicle in acne subjects.

Treatment response was defined as the percent of subjects who had a two grade improvement and rated 'Clear' and 'Almost Clear' at Week 12 based on the Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) and  mean absolute change  from baseline at Week 12 in both inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesion counts. An IGA score of 'Clear' corresponded to residual hyperpigmentation and erythema may be present. An IGA score of 'Almost Clear' corresponded to a few scattered comedones and a few small papules.

In Study 1, 517 subjects were randomized to Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel, adapalene 0.1% in vehicle gel, benzoyl peroxide 2.5% in vehicle gel, or vehicle gel. The median age of these 517 subjects was 15 years old and 60% were males. At baseline subjects had between 20 to 50 inflammatory lesions and 30 to 100 non-inflammatory lesions. The majority of subjects had a baseline IGA score of 'Moderate' which corresponded to more than half of the face is involved, many comedones, papules and pustules.  The efficacy results at week 12 are presented in Table 3.

In Study 2, 1668 subjects were randomized to Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel, adapalene 0.1% in vehicle gel, benzoyl peroxide 2.5% in vehicle gel, or vehicle gel. The median age of subjects was 16 years old and 49% were males. At baseline subjects had between 20 to 50 inflammatory lesions and 30 to 100 non-inflammatory lesions as well as an Investigator Global Assessment score of 'Moderate'. The efficacy results at week 12 are presented in Table 3.

Table 3: Clinical Efficacy of Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel at Week 12
Study 1
  Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel Adapalene 0.1% in Vehicle Gel Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% in Vehicle Gel Vehicle Gel
  (N = 149) (N = 148) (N = 149) (N = 71)
IGA: Two Grade   
Improvement and  32 18 18 4
Clear or Almost Clear (21.5%) (12.2%) (12.1%) (5.6%)
Inflammatory Lesions:         
Mean Absolute  16 11.4 10.5 9.5
(Percent) Change (52.4%) (39.9%) (35.8%) (31.8%)
Non-inflammatory         
Lesions: Mean  23.4 15.2 13.7 13.2
Absolute (Percent) Change (45.9%) (29.6%) (32.2%) (27.8%)
Study 2
  Adapalene/Benzoyl peroxide Gel Adapalene 0.1% in Vehicle Gel Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% in Vehicle Gel Vehicle Gel
  (N = 415) (N = 420) (N = 415) (N = 418)
IGA: Two Grade   
Improvement and  125 83 92 47
Clear or Almost Clear (30.10)% (19.8%) (22.2%) (11.3%)
Inflammatory Lesions:         
Mean Absolute  15.4 12.3 13.7 8.7
(Percent) Change (53.4%) (41.7%) (47.6%) (30.2%)
Non-inflammatory         
Lesions: Mean  24.6 21 19.2 11.3
Absolute (Percent) Change (48.1%) (40.8%) (37.2%) (23.2%)

In both Studies 1 and 2 the treatment effect was smaller in subjects with a small number of baseline lesions than in subjects with a large number of baseline lesions.

ATC Classification D10AD53 - adapalene, combinations; Belongs to the class of retinoids for topical use in acne. Used in the treatment of dermatological diseases.

Brand/Product Info


Total Products : 3   
Brand Name Manufacturer/Marketer Composition Dosage Form Pack Size & Price
Adaben Duo Incepta Pharmaceuticals Limited Adapalene BP 1mg (0.1%)+ Benzoyl peroxide BP 25mg(2.5%) Gel 1x1's:MRP 200 Tk
FONA PLUS Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd. Adapalene 0.1% + Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% Gel 10 gm: 160.48 MRP
FRESHLOOK Ziska Pharmaceuticals Ltd. Adapalene INN 1mg(0.1%)+ Benzoyl peroxide BP 25mg(2.5%) Gel 10gm: 160.00 MRP

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