P : Caution when used during pregnancy
L : Caution when used during lactation
|| See TERMINOLOGY & ABBREVIATIONS ||
|Indication(s) & Dosage||Oral route
Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis
Adult: 500 mg 3-4 times daily.
Max Dosage: 1500 mg/day.
|Administration||Should be taken with food. Preferably taken at meals.
|Contraindications||Allergy to shellfish.|
|Special Precautions||Diabetic patients, patients on heparin. Pregnancy and lactation.|
|Adverse Drug Reaction(s)||Heart burn, epigastric pain/tenderness, diarhea, nausea, dyspepsia, constipation, abdominal pain, palpitations, drowsiness, skin reaction, headache, indigestion.|
|Pregnancy Category (FDA)||Category C: Either studies in animals have revealed adverse effects on the foetus (teratogenic or embryocidal or other) and there are no controlled studies in women or studies in women and animals are not available. Drugs should be given only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the foetus.|
|Pharmacology||Glucosamine stimulates the production of proteoglycans and increases sulfate uptake by articular cartilage.|
|ATC Classification||M01AX05 - glucosamine; Belongs to the class of other non-steroidal antiinflammatory and antirheumatic products. Used in the treatment of inflammation and rheumatism.|
|Brand Name||Manufacturer/Marketer||Composition||Dosage Form||Pack Size & Price|
|BONFLEX||Eskayef Bangladesh Ltd||Glucosamine Sulfate INN 250mg +Chondroitin Sulfate INN 200mg||Tablet||40's MRP: 320.00|
|CARTICEL||Opsonin Pharma Limited||Glucosamine hydrochloride INN 500mg||Tablet||50's: 150.00 MRP|
|GLUSTIN||General Pharmaceuticals Ltd||Glucosamine hydrochloride INN 500mg||Tablet||50's: 175.50 MRP|
|Joinix||Incepta Pharmaceuticals Limited||Glucosamine Hydrochloride INN 500mg||Film Coated Tablet||10x10's:MRP 300 Tk|
|SYNFLEX TAB||Healthcare Pharmacuticals Ltd.||Glucosamine Sulfate INN 250mg +Chondroitin Sulfate INN 200mg||Tablet||30's MRP 255 Tk|
|TILEX MAX||Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd.||Glucosamine Sulfate 750mg + Diacerein 50mg||Tablet||5x6's: 360.00 MRP|
What is Glucosamine sulfate?
Glucosamine sulfate is commonly used for arthritis. Scientists have studied it extensively for this use. It is most often used for a type of arthritis called osteoarthritis. This is the most common type of arthritis.
Over the years, people have tried glucosamine sulfate for a variety of other uses. For example, it has been tried for glaucoma and for weight loss. But glucosamine sulfate has not been adequately studied for these uses. There is no proof that glucosamine sulfate is beneficial for these conditions.
There are different forms of glucosamine including glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, and N-acetyl-glucosamine. These different chemicals have some similarities; however, they may not have the same effects when taken as a dietary supplement. Most of the scientific research done on glucosamine has been done on glucosamine sulfate. The information on this page pertains to glucosamine sulfate. For information on the other forms of glucosamine, see the specific pages for each of them.
Dietary supplements that contain glucosamine often contain additional ingredients. These additional ingredients are frequently chondroitin sulfate, MSM, or shark cartilage. Some people think these combinations work better than taking just glucosamine sulfate alone. So far, researchers have found no proof that combining the additional ingredients with glucosamine adds any benefit.
Glucosamine is also in some skin creams used to control arthritis pain. These creams usually contain camphor and other ingredients in addition to glucosamine. Researchers believe that any pain relief people may experience from these creams is due to ingredients other than glucosamine. There is no evidence that glucosamine can be absorbed through the skin.
Some glucosamine sulfate products are not labeled accurately. In some cases, the amount of glucosamine actually in the product has varied from none to over 100% of the amount stated on the productâ€™s label. Some products have contained glucosamine hydrochloride when glucosamine sulfate was listed on the label.
The effectiveness ratings for GLUCOSAMINE SULFATE are as follows:
Likely effective for...
- Osteoarthritis. Most research on glucosamine sulfate has measured its effectiveness on osteoarthritis of the knee. However, there is some evidence that it might also help osteoarthritis of the hip or spine.
Some research suggests that glucosamine reduces pain of osteoarthritis in the knee about as well as the over-the-counter pain reliever acetaminophen (Tylenol). It also seems to reduce pain about as much as the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil) and piroxicam (Feldene). But there is a difference between glucosamine sulfate and these drugs in the time it takes to reduce pain. The NSAIDs, such as Motrin, Advil, and Feldene, relieve symptoms and reduce pain usually within about 2 weeks, but the glucosamine sulfate takes about 4-8 weeks.
Glucosamine sulfate does not seem to decrease pain in everyone who takes it. Some people get no benefit. Some research shows that glucosamine sulfate might not work very well for people with more severe, long-standing osteoarthritis, or for people who are older or heavier.
In addition to relieving pain, glucosamine sulfate might also slow the breakdown of joints in people with osteoarthritis who take it long-term. Some researchers hope that glucosamine sulfate might keep osteoarthritis from getting worse as quickly as it otherwise might. There is some evidence that people who take glucosamine sulfate might be less likely to need total knee replacement surgery.
- Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthritis. TMJ is the joint in the jaw that dentists often check for clicking and proper alignment. It can be a factor related to jaw pain, chewing, yawning, and talking. Some research shows that taking glucosamine sulfate works about as well as the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, etc) for relieving jaw pain. In some people, pain relief appears to continue for up to 90 days after glucosamine sulfate is discontinued.
- Weight loss.
Joints are cushioned by the fluid and cartilage that surround them. In some people with osteoarthritis, the cartilage breaks down and becomes thin. This results in more joint friction, pain, and stiffness. Researchers think that taking glucosamine supplements may either increase the cartilage and fluid surrounding joints or help prevent breakdown of these substances, or maybe both.
Some researchers think the â€œsulfateâ€ part of glucosamine sulfate is also important. Sulfate is needed by the body to produce cartilage. This is one reason why researchers believe that glucosamine sulfate might work better than other forms of glucosamine such as glucosamine hydrochloride or N-acetyl glucosamine. These other forms do not contain sulfate.
Glucosamine sulfate can cause some mild side effects including nausea, heartburn, diarrhea, and constipation. Uncommon side effects are drowsiness, skin reactions, and headache. These are rare.
Pregnancy or breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable scientific information available to know if glucosamine sulfate is safe to take during pregnancy or while breast-feeding. Until more is known, do not take glucosamine sulfate while pregnant or breast-feeding.
Asthma: There is one report linking an asthma attack with taking glucosamine. It is not known for sure if glucosamine was the cause of the asthma attack. Until more is known, people with asthma should be cautious about taking products that contain glucosamine.
Diabetes: Some early research suggested that glucosamine sulfate might raise blood sugar in people with diabetes. However, more recent and more reliable research now shows that glucosamine sulfate does not seem to affect blood sugar control in people with type 2 diabetes. Glucosamine appears to be safe for most people with diabetes, but blood sugar should be monitored closely.
Shellfish allergy: Because some glucosamine sulfate products are made from the shells of shrimp, lobsters or crabs, there is concern that glucosamine products might cause allergic reactions in people who are allergic to shellfish. But allergic reactions in people with shellfish allergy are typically caused by the meat of shellfish, not the shell. There are no reports of allergic reactions to glucosamine in people who are allergic to shellfish. There is also some information that people with shellfish allergy can safely take glucosamine products.
Some of these medications are etoposide (VP16, VePesid), teniposide (VM26), and doxorubicin (Adriamycin).
Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.
Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?
Are there interactions with foods?
What dose is used?
- Osteoarthritis: 1500 mg once daily or 500 mg three times daily.
- Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthritis: 500 mg three times daily.
- Bruyere O, Pavelka K, Rovati LC, et al. Total joint replacement after glucosamine sulphate treatment in knee osteoarthritis: results of a mean 8-year observation of patients from two previous 3-year, randomised, placebo-controlled trials. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2008;16:254-60.
- Bijlsma JWJ, Lafeber FPJG. Glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis: The jury is still out. Ann Intern Med 2008;148:315-6.
- Rozendaal RM, Koes BW, van Osch GJVM, et al. Effect of glucosamine sulfate on hip osteoarthritis: A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2008;148:268-77.
- Persiani S, Rotini R, Trisolino G, et al. Synovial and plasma glucosamine concentrations in osteoarthritic patients following oral crystalline glucosamine sulphate at therapeutic dose.Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2007;15:764-72.
- Yue QY, Strandell J, Myrberg O. Concomitant use of glucosamine may potential the effect of warfarin. The Uppsala Monitoring Centre. Available at: www.who-umc.org/graphics/9722.pdf (Accessed 28 April 2008).
- Knudsen J, Sokol GH. Potential glucosamine-warfarin interaction resulting in increased international normalized ratio: Case report and review of the literature and MedWatch database.Pharmacotherapy 2008;28:540-8.
- Muniyappa R, Karne RJ, Hall G, et al. Oral glucosamine for 6 weeks at standard doses does not cause or worsen insulin resistance or endothelial dysfunction in lean or obese subjects.Diabetes 2006;55:3142-50.
- Tannock LR, Kirk EA, King VL, et al. Glucosamine supplementation accelerates early but not late atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice. J Nutr 2006;136:2856-61.
- Pham T, Cornea A, Blick KE, et al. Oral glucosamine in doses used to treat osteoarthritis worsens insulin resistance. Am J Med Sci 2007;333:333-9.
- Stumpf JL, Lin SW. Effect of glucosamine on glucose control. Ann Pharmacother 2006;40:694-8.
Ref: U.S. National Library of Medicine.
This information is provided for reference only and not a replacement for and should only be used in conjunction with full consultation with a registered medical practitioner. It may not contain all the available information you require and cannot substitute professional medical care, nor does it take into account all individual circumstances. Although great effort has been made to ensure content accuracy, mph-bd shall not be held responsible or liable for any claims or damages arising from the use or misuse of the information contained herein, its contents or omissions, or otherwise.