mph Bangladesh

Terminologies used



noun: something (such as a sign or signal) that points out or shows something

INDICATION- Medical Definition*

a : a symptom or particular circumstance that indicates the advisability or necessity of a specific medical treatment or procedure <postpartum hemorrhage is the chief indication for the use of ergot preparations and derivatives-C. H. Thienes>  b : something that is indicated as advisable or necessary <in case of collapse the immediate indication is artificial respiration-Journal of the American Medical Association>
: the degree indicated in a specific instance or at a specific time on a graduated physical instrument (as a thermometer)

The amount of a medicine, drug, or vitamin that should be taken at one time or regularly during a period of time.*

Administration Intake of medicine before, with or after a meal.

Route(s) of administration

Implant = Implant
Inhal = Inhalation
N = nasal
Instill = Instillation
O = oral
P = parenteral
R = rectal
SL = sublingual/buccal
TD = transdermal
V = vaginal
Overdosage Overdosage describes action to be taken in the event of accidental increased dose.
Contraindications This describes pre-existing medical conditions, disorders or subsequent use of other drug(s) that are prohibited with use of the medicine.
Special Precautions Medical conditions or disorders that can result adverse effects & untoward situation(s)with the use of the medicine
Adverse Drug Reactions An appreciably harmful or unpleasant reaction, resulting from an intervention related to the use of a medicinal product, which predicts hazard from future administration and warrants prevention or specific treatment, or alteration of the dosage regimen, or withdrawal of the product.**
Drug Interactions A situation in which a drug substance affects the activity of another drug when both are administered together. This action can be synergistic (when the drug's effect is increased) or antagonistic (when the drug's effect is decreased) or a new effect can be produced that neither produces on its own. Unless otherwise indicated a drug interaction is a drug to drug interaction. However, interactions may also exist between drugs and foods (drug-food interactions), as well as drugs and medicinal plants or herbs (drug-plant interactions).
Food Interaction A situation in which food affects the activity of a drug when both are taken together. This action can be synergistic (when the drug's effect is increased) or antagonistic (when the drug's effect is decreased) or a new effect can be produced that neither produces on its own. 
Pregnancy Category (US FDA)
It describes the categorization of risk of drug use in pregnancy from the United States Food & Drug Administration.
Pharmacology Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of the medicinal preparation are featured.
ATC Classification In the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system, the active substance(s) are divided into different groups according to the organ or system on which they act and their therapeutic, pharmacological and chemical properties. Drugs are classified in groups at five different levels. The drugs are divided into fourteen main groups (1st level), with pharmacological/therapeutic subgroups (2nd level).  The 3rd and 4th levels are chemical/pharmacological/therapeutic subgroups and the 5th level is the chemical substance.

*Merriam-Webster Dictionary

** NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information), U.S. National Library of Medicine

Abbreviations used

The abbreviations indices as followed in mph for commonly used words, medical terminologies and drug regulation symbols are as follows:
Abbr.   Elaboration   Abbr.   Elaboration
α alpha     IUD intrauterine device 
β beta     IV intravenous  
γ gamma     K potassium  
A Administration     kCal kilocalorie  
Ab(s) antibody(ies)     kg kilogram  
ACE angiotensin converting enzyme     L liter/litre  
ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone hyperactivity disorder     l- levo  
ADHD attention-deficit     LDL low-density lipoprotein 
AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome   LH luteinizing hormone 
AIIA angiotensin angiotensin II antagonist     lipos liposomal  
Al aluminium/aluminum     liqd liquid  
AML acute myeloid leukemia     lit literature  
ammon ammonium     LMWH low-molecular-weight Heparin
amp ampoule(s)     loz lozenge(s)  
ANA antinuclear antibodies    lyo lyophilized  
anaesth/anesth anaesthesia/tic; anesthesia/tic    m- meso  
approx approximately     MAOI(s) monoamine oxidase inhibitor(s)
aq aqueous     max maximum  
AR Adverse Reactions    mcg microgram  
ATP adenosine triphosphate    MDI metered-dose inhaler 
AV atrio-ventricular     ME microencapsulated  
ave average     ME-EC microencapsulated enteric-coated
BCG Bacille Calmette-Guérin    mEq milliequivalent(s)  
bd/bid twice daily    Mg magnesium  
BMI body mass index   mg milligram  
BP blood pressure    MI myocardial infarction 
Br bromide     min minimum/minute(s)  
BSA body surface area   MIU million international units
BUN blood urea nitrogen   mixt mixture  
C Contents     mL milliliter/millilitre  
Ca calcium     mmHg millimeter of mercury
CABG coronary artery bypass graft   mmol millimole  
CAD coronary artery disease   monoHCl monohydrochloride  
cal calories     MR modified-release  
cap capsule(s)     MR-FC modified-release film-coated
CHD coronary heart disease   MRI magnetic resonance imaging
CHF congestive heart failure   MRSA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
childn children     mth/mthly month(s)/monthly  
CI contraindications     MU million units 
Cl chloride     MUPS multiple unit pellet system
CNS central nervous system   Na sodium  
CO2 carbon dioxide    NIDDM non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 
compd compound(s)        
conc concentration     NNRTI(s) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor(s)
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease   NRTI(s) nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor(s)
CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation   NSAID(s) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
CR controlled-release     O & G obstetrics & gynecology
CrCl creatinine clearance    O2 oxygen  
CSF cerebrospinal fluid    OA osteoarthritis  
CV cardiovascular     obstet obstetrics  
CVA cerebrovascular accident   OC(s) oral contraceptives/ oral contraception
CVS cardiovascular system    OD orally disintegrating 
D Dosage     oint ointment  
d- dextro     ophth ophthalmic  
DHA docosahexaenoic acid    P Phosphorous  
DI Drug Interactions    p- para  
diHCl dihydrochloride     P/P Presentation & Packing
DM diabetes mellitus    PABA para-aminobenzoic acid 
DPT diphtheria pertussis tetanus   paed/ped paediatric/pediatric  
DR delayed-release     phenobarb phenobarbital/phenobarbitone
drag dragee(s)     PI(s) protease inhibitor(s) 
DVT deep vein thrombosis   PMT premenstrual tension 
E. coli Escherichia coli   PO oral administration/ 
EC enteric-coated     per orem/by mouth 
EC-CR enteric-coated controlled-release   post-op post-operative  
ECG electrocardiogram     powd powder  
EEG electro-encephalogram     PR prolonged-release  
ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay   premed premedication  
ENT ear, nose & throat   PR-FC prolonged-release film-coated  
EPA eicosapentaenoic acid    pre-op pre-operative  
equiv equivalent     prep preparation  
ER/XL/XR extended-release     PUD peptic ulcer disease
ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate   PUVA psoralen + ultraviolet A
exam examination     qds/qid four times daily
extr extract     QR quick-release  
FBC full blood count   RA rheumatoid arthritis 
FC film-coated     RBC red blood cells
FD fast disintegrating    resp respiratory  
Fe iron     SA sino-atrial  
flu influenza     SC subcutaneous  
FSH follicle-stimulating hormone   sec second(s)  
g/gm gram(s)     SGOT or AST liver enzymes: serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase
G6PD glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase   SGPT or ALT liver enzymes: serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alanine aminotransferase
gal gallon     SL sublingual  
GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease   SLE systemic lupus erythematosus
GFR glomerular filtration rate   soln solution  
GHRH growth hormone releasing hormone   SP Special Precautions 
      sp/spp single organism/ more than 1 organism (species)
GI gastrointestinal     SR slow-release/ sustained-release
GIT gastrointestinal tract    SR-FC slow/sustained-release film-coated
gm +ve  gram-positive   SSRI(s) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor(s)
gm -ve  gram-negative   Staph Staphylococcus  
GUT genito-urinary tract    STD sexually transmitted disease(s)
H. Influenzae  Haemophilus influenzae   Strep Streptococcus  
H. Pylori Helicobacter Pylori   supp suppository  
HAV hepatitis A virus   susp suspension  
Hb hemoglobin     syr syrup  
HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin    half-life  
HBr hydrobromide     tab tablet(s)  
HBsAg hepatitis B surface antigen   TB tuberculosis  
HBV hepatitis B virus   tbsp tablespoonful (15 mL) 
HCG human chorionic gonadotrophin   TCA(s) tricyclic antidepressant(s)
HCl hydrochloride     tds/tid three times/thrice daily
HCV hepatitis C virus   temp temperature  
HDL high-density lipoprotein    tinct tincture  
Hg mercury     TPN total parenteral nutrition
HIB Haemophilus influenzae type B    TR timed-release  
HIV human immunodeficiency virus   TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone  
hr/hrly hour(s)/hourly     tsp (5 mL) teaspoonful
HSV herpes simplex virus   u unit(s)  
HTN hypertension     UTI urinary tract infection
HZV herpes zoster virus   UV ultraviolet  
I Indications     vag vaginal  
IA intra-articular     vit vitamin(s)  
IB intrabursal     VLDL very low-density lipoprotein
ICU intensive care unit   vol volume  
IDDM insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus   w/ with  
Ig immunoglobulin     w/draw withdraw  
IgA immunoglobulin A    w/in within  
IM intramuscular     w/o without  
INH isoniazid (isonicotine hydrazine)   w/v weight-in-volume  
inj inject/injection     w/w weight-in-weight  
INR international normalized ratio   WBC white blood cells
IOP intraocular pressure    wk/wkly week(s)/weekly  
IP intra-peritoneal     wt weight  
ipecac ipecacuanha     XR-FC extended-release film-coated
IR immediate-release     yr/yrly year(s)/yearly  
IS intrasynovial     Zn zinc  
iu international unit(s)    yr/yrly year(s)/yearly  
IUCD intrauterine contraceptive device    Zn zinc   


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